1 - Embouchure
Hoofdstuk 1 - Paragraaf 10
1. Embouchure

1.10 Enbouchure

Enbouchure met daarin de aansturing van de arousal is het voorportaal van embouchure, het draagvlak, de noodzakelijke fysio-/psychologische basis en focus met daarin de belangrijke rol van het Form Ret. inzake RAS en daarmee Aras en Dras.. ademhaling, autonoom zenuwstelsel, propriocepsis, kinaesthesie, overige zintuigelijke waarneming, spieren en reflexen en het hormonale apparaat met de neurotransmitters etc.
Zonder dat geen embouchure. Dat is de sleutel om het begrip Enbouchure mee te stroomlijnen.



In the French language the word Enbouchure is wellknown and is comparised with Embouchure as the estuary, the debouchement at the end of a river. Look at the old picture here below.
In the brassworld the word embouchure is in fact the only word that is used and it means the addition
of forces and strenghts or qualities needed to change the airspeed and quantity of air passing the lipapertura, needed to change the tonal spectra in all registers and dynamic ranges. In literature the common opinion regarding the word embouchure, people think and describe it as the function and behaviour of the facial muscles , their power and flexibility. I mean: all what you can see at the outside. It concerns the somatic influences of the muscles of the skull, the trunk and pelvis bottom.

We would like to emphasize the importance of this other word ENBOUCHURE .. Here we make the difference that, except of all the somatic muscle activities, you need psychological , neurological, visceral , parietal and psychological activities in combination with each other. Some words ev’rybody knows as arousal, emotion, affection, limbic system.
We use it to accentuate all inside structures of the body and soul needed to facilitate the outward embouchure forces, strengths and qualities, so calles the sensomotorics. The reason why we make this difference is of a scientifical level, to make it easier to discover what the cause is of different injuries, complaints, overuse, wrong embouchure, pain, dystonia in the Embouchure etc.
Without being complete, we consider all the senses to bean integral part of the enbouchure: equilibrium, auditory and visual processing bodyrepresentation and even the smell and taste (two very old evolutionary systems), kinaesthesia make it possible to make music. By means the ears play a crucial role to choose the right pitch and dynamics, from the beginning.
The limbic system is responsible for our affection, also in music.The feel to play the right style depends on it.
All this psycho-neurological systems maken our performances a personal happening. No one plays the same as another. Therefore is the right functioning arousal necessary.

Activation of the central nervous system high correlation with the grade of psychological wakefullness or conscience. A high level of arousal is needed in your musical performances. In the high state of arousal we some brain wave activities, especially the bčta-rhythme, between 13-35 Hz. Important arealso the intensity of bloodsupply, use of glucosis and use of oxygen, in certain parts of the brain. Under the influence of arousal the intensity of skin conducting, pupildiameter and hartbeat frequency, reflexes and muscle functions will adapt. Measuring (via different technics like fMRI, EEG, peripheral methods etc.) can give us clarity. In recent music medicine literature one can find more Information about it (e.g. E. van Fenema, 2015). A good musical performance needs good working cognitive functions. There’s an optimal situation in this level of arousal; a too high or too low functioning arousal can lead to a lack of information out of your direct environment, too little of needed information.(o.a. Law of Yerkes-Dodson).

How it works:
The Formatio Reticularis
is a complicated neurological structure in the brain stem and delivers physiological mechanismes, together socalled RAS, .the Reticular Activation System. This system receives its impulses from the afferent nervous sense tracks via socalled collateral nerve fibers. Look at the picture of Dr.Ben van Cranenburgh. That are incoming signals from all over the body. Look at the pictures from:
Schema’s fysiologie Stichting Iton (Google.com…page…).Impulses from this RAS reach the brain cortex via thalamic nucleď and a more general brain activation (caused by neurotransmitters like noradrenaline, serotonine, acetylcholine and dopamine). This sytems are called together: the Ascending Reticular Activation System (ARAS). A second subsystem gives its information via nerve fibers outside the thalamus directly to the cortex. This sytem is founded on the activities of neurotransmitters like as noradrenaline, serotonine, acetychiline and dopamine.This substances are produced on different places in the brain . Electrical stimulation leads often to a increased cortical arousal.
The Formatio Reticularis doesn’t function only via Cortical area’s, but (look at the picture) more via the Descending Reticular Activation System(DRAS). Autonomic, hormonal-,muscle- and reflex-functions are activated by this DRAS system.

Different Circumstances and Causes that can change the arousal level:
Psychofarmaca like as Benzodiazepine and Amfetamine, L-dopa, Chlorpromazine,Clonidine and Reserpine can have a very great influence on the arousal level.
Strong emotions can influence the processus of the Formatio Reticularis too.
Stress can influence hormonal DRAS activities.
Cognitive tasks like as musical performances, sports etc. can increase the arousal caused by greater supply of glucose, O2 and blood. Feed back between cortex and formatio reticularis plays a great role. Stimulation from outside, like as the senses, propriocepsis, kinaesthetics, are important factors in the musical performances. Concentration and focus are wellknown words, and sometimes sportspsychologists and specialized coaches may help.
Spontaneous fluctuations can play a role in changing the level of the arousal also.

All this DRAS and ARASfunctions belong in our opinion to the ENBOUCHURE.
A serious warming up is an appropriated way to activy and to reach the right arousal, needed for a good musical or sports activity.

1.10 Enbouchure